Biological Evolution and the Genesis creation
account- are they both true?
According to many scientists, biological evolution explains why humans and
primates have many identical DNA errors in the same DNA locations. Biological
evolution also explains the progression of life found in the fossil
record. But, how can these scientists be right? Isn't biological evolution
against the Genesis creation account?
Note: This article does not cover the creation of our spirit,
or etheric body which the Bible tells us will some day return
to God from where it came. Ecclesiastes 11:6-7. We are beginning
to be presented with scientific, observational, and practical
evidence that we do have a spiritual body that I believe existed
before our physical bodies were conceived and will survive our
physical deaths. Richard Gerber, M.D. has a lot of scientific
evidence showing we are far more than just physical beings in
"Vibrational Medicine". In "Energy Medicine" by Donna Eden and
in "Energy Work" by Robert Bruce" one can get an idea about the
abilities and complexities of our nonphysical spirit bodies that
normally occupy the same time and space as our physical bodies but
at a different vibrational frequency. Why can you tune your Radio
into so many different stations without running all over the room?
Because the different radio frequencies are able to occupy the same
space at the same time because they are of different frequencies.
Before we examine Genesis and some other relevant scriptures let's look at
two interesting discoveries scientists have made concerning the DNA code of
humans and primates, like chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
By the way, Copyrighted 1998-2013 by Wayne Mckellips. Last updated 02 Feb
2013. Please copy and share but don't sell. You do not have permission to
mirror this article or site on the Internet.
1st) Dr. Edward Max in his article "Plagiarized Errors and
Molecular Genetics" says that genetic errors, including specific
pseudogenes and retroposons, appearing in humans and other species,
like chimpanzees, at the same DNA locations, are evidence that humans
and the other species had a common ancestor. This is very strong
evidence for biological evolution.
In section 2.1 of his article "Plagiarized Errors and Molecular
Genetics" Dr. Edward Max M.D., Ph.D explains DNA for the layman.
In section 2.2 through the end of section 2.2.2 he explains the
different types of DNA errors found in DNA. These errors include
several types of pseudogenes, which are false or non-working genes.
Mutations can change the DNA code, changing good genes into pseudogenes.
The DNA errors also include several kinds of retroposons which are
genes that were transcribed from DNA into RNA, which then had the
useless intron segments removed. However, at that point, instead of
coding a protein they were then reverse transcribed back into DNA.
Retroposons are useless genes and are almost always inserted back
into the DNA at different locations and into different chromosomes,
than they were originally taken from.
In all of section 4 Dr. Max gives many examples of pseudogenes and
retroposons that humans share with other primates. Dr. Max points
out that these shared errors are often at the same DNA location in both
humans and various primates including chimpanzees, apes, and monkeys.
Contrary to what I thought, humans share thousands, yes thousands,
of exactly the same DNA errors, including retroposons, with other
primates at exactly the same DNA locations or positions.
Let me illustrate the problem with retroposons in this way. Let's
say we have two rooms with identical contents. Inside each room are 24
books with different titles. I go inside the first room and cut out a
total of 1000 paragraphs from among the 24 books. Then I glue each
paragraph upside down to different pages in these 24 books randomly,
without regard to which book I cut the paragraph out of. Then I hand
you, the reader, the scissors and glue. Your job is to go into the
second room and cut out the same 1000 paragraphs I cut out. No
cheating! I won't tell you which paragraphs I cut out. After you cut
out 1000 paragraphs you are to glue them upside down inside the various
books as you see fit. What are the chances you would cut out the same
1000 paragraphs I cut out? What are the chances you would glue the
paragraphs you cut out in the same locations in your set of books as
I did mine?
I think the chances to the above two things happening are zero. Yet,
that is almost what we see in the case of thousands of retroposons
that have been reinserted in humans and other primates at the same
2nd) The March 1982 issue of Science magazine on pages 1526-1527
has pictures of the chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and
orangutan, arranged in order beside each other. The article titled,
"The Origin of Man: A Chromosomal Pictorial Legacy" by J. J. Yunis
and O. Prakash, runs from page 1525 to 1530. The pictures show that
each numbered chromosome in humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and
orangutans, look almost the same, and are almost the same length, with
one exception. The exception is chromosome number 2 in humans. However,
if one fused chromosome numbers 2p, and 2q of chimpanzee together,
the result would look almost like human chromosome number 2 looks. Why?
Now, exactly what does the scripture say about the creation of the
various forms of life on earth? Let's ask some questions and look
carefully in the text for our answers.
Question 1) Who was suppose to bring forth the various "kinds" of life,
according to God? Genesis 1:11-12 tells us, "And God said, Let the earth
bring forth grass, ... and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass," etc.
(All scripture quotations are from the KJV (King James Version) unless
otherwise noted.) In Genesis 1:24-25 God said, "Let the earth bring
forth ... after its kind." Then we read, "God made ... after its kind."
Answer= The earth.
Question 2) Did God say how the earth should bring forth the various
forms of life? See Genesis 1:11, 24.
Question 3) Is God the creator? That is, did God bring about or make
the various forms of life? Genesis 1:20-21, 24-31.
Question 4) Does the Bible record first the creation of mankind
in general then later the specific creation of Adam and Eve?
Genesis 1:26 says, "And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our
likeness." Genesis 1:27 tells us, "So God created man is his own image, in the
image of God created he him; male and female created he them." This was
done on the sixth day according to Genesis 1:31. Later, in Genesis 2:7-8 we read,
"And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into
his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. And the LORD
God planted (or had planted) a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the
man whom he had formed." Genesis 2:21-22 tells us, "And the LORD God
caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and he took one of his
ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which the LORD
God had taken from the man, made he a woman, and brought her unto
Answer = Possibly.
I use to think the account of the creation of Adam and Eve in Genesis chapter
two was just an indepth description of the birdseye view of the creation of
the earth and humans found in Genesis chapter one. That may be, but
now I believe Genesis 1 is about the general creation of humans
probably via evolution. While Genesis 2 details the special creation
of Eve from Adam's rib and the creation of Adam directly from the dust
of the earth. If this viewpoint is correct, Adam was the "protos"
first man in importance, but not the first man in time.
Question 5) How long did God take to bring about the various forms of
Answer= The Bible doesn't say.
Question 6) What method did God use to bring about the
various forms of life?
Answer= Since I wasn't alive back then I don't know for sure.
However, I will give four possible answers with what I feel are
their strong and weak points.
Question 7) How was Eve made?
Answer= Eve was made from Adam's rib, which God had
taken out of Adam. Genesis 2:20-23.
Question 8) When were Adam and Eve made?
Answer = The text doesn't say. We can only look at the
text and the evidence found in God's creation to make an
Among Christians who believe Adam was the "protos" first
man in time, some think Adam and Eve were made around 6
million years ago. Other Christians of this persuasion think
Adam and Eve were created around 120 thousand, or 40
thousand, or 20 thousand, or even 6 thousand years ago.
Among Christians who think Adam was the "protos" first
man in importance most seem to think Adam and Eve
were created between 120 thousand to 20 thousand years ago.
Now, let's go back to question 7. I'd like to present 4 possible
answers to explain how God brought about or made the various forms of
life. Remember, in Psalm 19:1-2 God tells us the heavens and the skies
constantly tell everyone about him and his handiwork. I doubt that God
designed them so studing them would lead us to faulty conclusions.
When God speaks to us through his creation or through his
word he always tells us the truth. In all these viewpoints, Eve
was made from Adam's rib.
POSSIBILITY # 1) God may have made each new life form
from the kind of dust one finds on the side of a dirt road as time
progressed. This idea is called "progressive creation."
Strong points: Fits well with the traditional Christian understanding.
Weak points: Progressive creation does not appear to explain the thousands
of DNA errors, including retroposons, humans share with other primates at
exactly the same DNA locations. It does not seem to explain why each
numbered chromosome in humans has so much in common with the like numbered
chromosome in chimpanzees, etc. However, if this idea is correct it would
appear God used a lot of the DNA of older life forms and just added to it
and reordered some of it as He created newer life forms.
POSSIBILITY # 2) God may have made the various life forms
including humans via evolution. If so, how was Adam made from "dust?"
The first idea is that Genesis 1:26-27 records the creation of
humans via evolution. Later, in Genesis chapter 2 we read how God made Adam
and Eve. According to this idea, many years after God first made humans via
evolution, he then made Adam directly from dust, so he was genetically like
other humans. Then God made Eve directly from Adam's rib. I believe Adam was
the "protos" first man in importance but probably not in time.
The second idea. which I don't agree with, is that God made Adam indirectly
from dust. This is the idea that Adam had parents who were not quite human.
Christians who hold to this idea believe God made Adam from the kind of "dust"
God was referring to when he told Adam, "You are dust." Genesis 3:19.
"Dust" sometimes refers to living bodies. Genesis 18:27. Numbers 23:10.
Ecclesiastes 12:7. Remember, all life forms are ultimately made from "dust,"
that is, the elements. Some Christians of this persuasion think the creation
of Adam and Eve occurred as long as 6 million years ago.
Both the above ideas believe God made Eve from Adam's rib after God made Adam.
In Genesis 2:7-25 we read about the creation of Adam and Eve, whom God had
conversations with and whom God put in the Garden of Eden. The text tells us
"the Lord God formed Adam from the dust of the ground and God breathed into his
body the breath of life. And man became a living soul." We also read that "God
took one of Adam's ribs and closed up the flesh thereof. Then the Lord God made
a woman from the rib and took her to Adam." As far as I can tell from the text
Eve was made directly from Adam's rib. Remember God almost instantly changed
the staff of Moses into a snake that was probably genetically like other snakes
of its kind. Exodus 4:2-4.
Is Adam called the first man, because he was the first human God
made or because he was the human God chose to work with, and to
represent humans? "Protos" in 1st Corinthians 15:45,47 in Greek can
mean the first one in time or the first one in importance, that is,
the chief one. In Matthew 22:38 "protos" means the first one in
importance, not the first one given. Likewise, "prototokos" can mean
the first one born, or even the chief one. That's why God called
Joseph's son, Ephraim, his firstborn, "bekowr," and had Jacob give the
major blessing to him even though his brother Manasseh came out of the
womb before him. Jeremiah 31:9. Genesis 41:50-52. Genesis 48:8-22. That
is also why Jesus, the creator, is called the firstborn of all creation.
Jesus is the "prototokos," chief, or you might say ruler of all
creation. Colossians 1:15-17. Just as Jesus was not the "last" man to
live on the earth, it's very possible Eve's husband Adam may not have
been the first man to live on the earth. 1st Corinthians 15:45. That
would explain why Cain was so concerned someone would find him and kill
him. Genesis 4:14-15.
Jesus' sacrificial death brought righteousness to believers who lived
after him as well as believers who lived before him. Job 19:25-27.
Hebrews 11:13,39-40. Hebrews 2:9. Hebrews 10:4,10-14. Hebrews 9:15.
In like manner, I believe Adam, when he sinned as the chief or
representative of mankind, brought sin and death to all humans,
whether they lived and died before or after him. Romans
5:12-21. Like Jesus, all humans are born without sin, but into
a sinful world. However, unlike Jesus, every human has chosen to sin,
as soon as he was old enough to know and chose between good and evil.
Romans 9:11. Deuteronomy 1:39. Mark 10:14-15. Hebrews 4:14-15.
Romans 3:12,23. Psalms 51:1-7. Romans 5:13.
We share in the physical consequences of Adam's sin when we suffer and
die physically. We share in the spiritual consequences of Adam's sin
when we follow his example and sin, thus dying spiritually. In a sense,
Adam's sin causes us to suffer and die physically, but our own sins
cause us to die spiritually. A person becomes a sinner when he
disobeys God. Sin is not inherited in our genes. If sin was inherited,
wouldn't Jesus have been born a sinner? Remember, Jesus was fully
human, born of the seed of a woman. Ezekiel 18:20. 1st John 3:4.
James 4:17. Romans 6:23. Isaiah 59:2. John 1:1,14. Galations 4:4.
What about cloned people? We now have the technology to clone people.
People will probably be cloned whether we like it or not.
How will cloned men and women inherit Adam's sin? They won't! They
won't be born sinners anymore than we are. Yet like us, they will
chose to disobey God and sin almost as soon as they are able to chose
between right and wrong. Cloned people will be just as human, sinful,
and spiritual as we are.
The "Scriptural refutation of Inherited Sin" titled "Calvinism Refuted,"
has more scriptures and thoughts on this subject. "Creation, Evolution
and Adam" has a couple great articles, one shows that Adam was our
representative head, and another refutes the argument that Biblically,
death, and decay couldn't have existed before Adam sinned.
If Adam and Eve were "protos" first in importance, but not first
in time, it's likely God made Adam, directly from the dust of the earth. That
is, it's possible God made Adam and Eve genetically like humans that were
contempories of them, just like I think he did when he turned Moses staff
into a snake. That snake was probably genetically like other snakes of its
species. Exodus 4:2-4.
If men and women existed before Adam and Eve, why did God chose to make
Eve from Adam's rib, and Adam from dust? Why did God put them in a special
garden and work with them and their descendants from that point on? I think it
was so we would have a starting or reference point. Also, just as God later chose
to call and work with a man named Abram, the time was now right for God to
work with humans, that they might become clearly aware of their sins and their
need of a redeemer.
Note: The question might arise, If humans were made first via evolution then Adam
was made later directly from the dust so he was genetically like other humans
does it matter if I can trace any or all of my ancestors to Adam and Eve? I don't
think it matters at all. If your ancestors are Jewish or Arab you might be able to
trace your ancestors back to Adam and Eve because your a descent of Abraham or
Terah. However, if your a Gentile, like me, you may not be able to trace all your
ancestors back to Adam and Eve. I figure Adam is my representative human forefather
even if I'm genetically related to some degree, to humans who lived before, or
contemporary with Adam and Eve. 1st Corinthians 15:44-49.
When did God create modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens?) Perhaps
120 thousand years ago. This timing is suggested by
the dating of huminid fossils. It has also been suggested
that humans appeared 130,000 years ago. An analysis of
the DNA in the mitochondria in our cells puts the common female
ancestor of humans at 120,000 to 150,000 years ago. An analysis of the
DNA in the nucleus of our cells puts the common male ancestor of humans
at 188,000 to 270,000 years ago. However, these dates are not
written in stone. There is even some evidence that some mitochondria
DNA and some nuclear DNA sometimes mix or migrate. Scientists, not
only use DNA to trace the origins of humans, but to track their movements.
Michael Roberts, has a great article explaining the two theories which
explain the beginnings and dispersal of Homo sapiens. Notice
his summary near the end of his article, and his following notes.
When was "the Adam" made that God put in the Garden of Eden, and that
God talked with, and from whom God took a rib and made Eve? If the
above paragraphs are correct, I would assume Adam and Eve probably
lived in the Garden of Eden just a few thousand years before Noah's
"erets" flood. However, if we say that Adam was the "protos" first
man in time, then we must look at Glenn Morton's evidence that Adam
may have been made around 6 million years ago. Here are some quick
links that examine the antiquity of humans. Some Paleoanthropology
links from talk origins. Human Evolution= a chart, fossils, tools, etc.
The Record of Human Evolution by Eric Delson. Human Evolution= you try
it. The Life & Times of Early Man with a cheat sheet.
The Antiquity and the Unity of the Human Race Revisited" by Davis A.
Young, professor of geology at Calvin College, in Grand Rapids,
Michigan. Julie Gephart wrote a short interesting article on tracing
human migration and origins by studing human specific Alu retroposons.
She cited information from "Proceedings of the National Academy of
science USA, vol. 91, pp. 12288-12292, December 1994.
Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania think the decendants
of primates like apes, became able to grow much bigger brains which
eventually resulted in humans when mutations approximately 2.4 million
years ago resulted in smaller and weaker jaw muscles which allow the
skull and brain to expand significantly. I read this
in "Chin UP: Ape-Human Split Was a Jaw-Breaker"
While watching pbs.org I learned humans have approximately 23,000
genes, similiar to the number of genes possessed by most species
of plants and animals. Some species of plants and animals have
more slightly more genes than humans and some have slightly less
genes than humans. Only around 2 percent of DNA is genes which
codes proteins. 98 percent of DNA is not genes and does not code
proteins. Much of the non gene section of DNA is thought to be
junk DNA. However, apparently in the non gene DNA there are sections
of DNA called switches. These DNA switches turn the genes on and off.
There are also DNA switch controllers. The DNA switch controllers
tell the DNA switches when to turn the genes on and off and for how
long to leave the genes turned on. It seems some scientists have
found some of the DNA switches and switch controllers. However,
I didn't find anyone who as yet understands the code of the DNA
switches and switch controllers. It seems the activity of the DNA
switches and their controllers is most important during the embro
period of development.
Glenn Morton, a Christian creationist who also believes in evolution,
believes Adam was made around 5.5 million years ago. Since our bodies
are called dust, Glenn theorizes God may have made Adam from (dust)
that is, the union of two nonhuman bodies. Genesis 3:19, 2:7, 18:27.
Numbers 23:10. Ecclesiastes 12:7. Glenn offers specific scientific
and Biblical reasons he feels this is true. Notice especially the
writeups under Evolution, the Origin of Man, and the Place of Fossil
Glenn Morton used to be an ardent young earth creationist until he
came across some startling evidence regarding the antiquity of the
earth. You can access information about his two well documented
books, "Foundation, Fall and Flood: A Harmonization of Genesis and
Science" and "Adam, Apes, and Anthropology" at
Glenn believes God made Eve from Adam's rib. Glenn Morton reveals
the entire geologic column is found in proper order at 24 different
locations. Glenn, a Bible believing christian, examines whether
this evidence supports a world wide flood and a young earth or a
local "erets" flood and evolution.
Strong points: Believes Eve was made from Adam's rib. Believes God is
the author and creator of life. Believes the Genesis creation
account is true. Believes the events in the Garden of Eden actually
took place. For some, believes Adam was made directly from the dust of
the ground. Explains why humans have DNA errors in common with other
primates at the same DNA locations. Agrees with over 29 scientific evidences
for macroevolution of all life forms on earth from one original life form
as detailed by Douglas Theobald, Ph.D. at www.talkorigins.org. Be sure to click
on the previous and Next arrows.
Weak points: Is not in agreement with the traditional understanding
for how and when the first human (in time) was made. (However,
this does not make it wrong.)
When I was first convinced by the evidence that evolution had actually
happened, I started arguing with God. I remember thinking, "God
couldn't have done it that way." Then I thought, "Who am I to tell God
how He could or couldn't do something? He can do things anyway he
For the record, I believe the evolution of all life forms,
should be taught as a theory, not as a fact. We cannot presently
dublicate or observe the evolution of say, humans, from lower life
forms. So, how can we say the evolution, of all life forms, is a fact.
A scientific fact, to me, should be able to be verified and observed by
others. I say this as someone who believes that even the evolution of
the human life form occurred. But that is my belief, I cannot take you
back in time so you can see it happening. We cannot go back in time and
see the beginnings of various humanoid life forms, including humans. So,
while I believe the evidence supports most of the macro-evolutionary
theory of origins, I cannot say it is a fact. I believe it is totally
wrong to try and make a teacher or student say they believe evolution
is a fact. I think, science students and teachers should know what the
theory of evolution is and the scientific evidences for it. But, no
one's grade or job should depend on their belief in evolution. To do that,
to me, would be religious persecution. They may believe in progressive
creation, Dr. Senapathy's theory or some modified version of his theory,
or some other theory. A person has a right to adhere to their religious
convictions about origins.
POSSIBILITY # 3) God may have made the various life forms from pools
or oceans full of genetic material as Dr. Senapathy theorizes in his
nonreligious book "The Independent birth of Organisms." Dr. Senapathy,
a molecular biologist, believes each unique "kind" can diversify
somewhat into different species but only so far. The many species of
snails would be one kind while the various species of crabs would be
a different kind. Dr. Senapathy did intensive research on gene
structure for several years. He believed in macro-evolution.
However, he became convinced that theory of origins was incorrect.
Strong points: Fits fairly well with the traditional understand of
the creation. Could explain why humans share some DNA errors with
other primates at the same DNA locations. Gives answers to some,
I feel, difficult questions like: Why are the genes in eukaryotes,
like humans, composed of introns (noncoding sections), and exons
(coding sections). Why are the longest exons in eukaryotes limited
to about 600 nucleotides? Why are so many exons in eukaryotes so
very short? Why does each "kind" have its own unique and different
developmental genetic pathway (DGP)? Since a "kinds" DGP is very
complex how could a new and different DGP have evolved via many small
steps over many generations? This seems to be an example of what can
happen, if the DGP of a seed cell - zygote, is rearranged. Why was there
a sudden explosion of new life forms on earth millions of years ago?
Weak points: In my view, doesn't explain why humans share thousands,
of DNA errors of various types with other primates at the same
DNA locations. I now think the genetic filled ponds would have
ceased to exist shortly after oxygen became plentyful in earth's
atmosphere. I think the oxygen would have eventually made unusable
the genetic material that wasn't inside a cell. It may have been
able to exist for a time but not hundreds of millions of years.
It also doesn't explain why all the chromosomes of humans, chimpanzees,
etc, are so similiar. I believe it also does not answer the Many
scientific evidences for macroevolution and the common descent of all
life forms on earth from one original life form, as detailed by Douglas
Theobald, Ph.D., at www.talkorigins.org. Be sure to click on the
POSSIBILITY # 4) Dr. Senapathy's theory about the independent birth
of organisms in combination with evolution and the creation of Adam
directly from dust. Dr. Senapathy believes the ponds or oceans full
of genetic material ceased to exist at the end of the cambrian
explosion of new life forms about 540 million years ago. He believes
all the various "kinds" existed at that time.
This view is that Dr. Senapathys ponds or oceans full of genetic
material were responsible for the explosion of many new life forms on
earth. These genetic filled pools did cease to exist at the end of
the cambrian explosion due to oxidation by oxygen. Then, in the
millions of years that followed, many other new life forms including
the various primates like monkeys and humans came about
via evolution. (Click on various time periods.) If this idea is correct,
instead of having just one evolutionary life tree there might be five or
ten or even a thousand, etc.
Eventually, Adam, who was probably the "protos" first man- in importance,
but not necessarily in time, was made directly from "dust." All life
forms are ultimately from "dust," that is, the elements. Then, God made
Eve from Adam's rib. God, of course, is the author and creator of all life.
Strong points: (May explain the cause of the Cambrian explosion of new
life forms. There is a good article on the sudden appearance of
many new kinds of life, in the December 4, 1995 issue of "Time
Magazine." See Dr. Senapathy's explanation for the Cambrian
explosion of new life forms.
This idea may also explain how God brought about the first cells. (See
Reference # 1.) Explains why the first cells probably had introns and
exons. Explains how the first cells could easily have been randomly
coded, since they had exons (short coding sections) seperated by
introns (long noncoding sections.) Believes Eve was made from Adam's
rib. Believes Adam was made directly from the dust of the Earth.
Believes God is the author and creator of life. Believes the
Genesis creation account is true. Believes the events in the Garden of
Eden actually took place. Explains why humans have DNA errors in
common with other primates at the same DNA locations.
Weak points: Is not in agreement with traditional Christian belief.
(However, this does not make it wrong.) I am not ready to completely
disregard Dr. Senapathy's theory. However, I believe his theory does not
answer the 29 scientific evidences for the macroevolution of all life forms
on earth from one original life form as detailed by Douglas Theobald, Ph.D.
at www.talkorigins.org. Be sure to click on the previous and Next arrows.
Reference # 1) If I understand correctly, Dr. Senapathy believes in
earth's past there were several seas or ponds which held large
amounts of amino acids, nucleotides, fats, sugars, etc, which combined
to form DNA and RNA strands. He thinks the ponds also resulted in
various short protein chains yielding numerous catalytic abilities.
He believes primitive genetic replication, recombination,
transcription, splicing, cutting, and translation occurred in these
ponds, due to the catalytic abilities of various short protein
chains. In fact, Dr. Senapathy gives cases where experiments
designed to reproduce chemical evolution have resulted in amino acids
randomly linking together, resulting in various enzymatic functions.
In time, the current replication, splicing, translation,
recombination, etc, methods were coded from DNA. He feels
over time different genes and genomes were assembled in these ponds.
Many copies of genes, as well as RNA strands, and DNA chromosomes,
were made and are found in various organisms. Yet, each organism also
has its own unique genes. He believes organisms arose from these
ponds fulled formed from what he calls "seed cells." (See pages
205-219, 295-313 of Dr. Senapathy's Independent Birth book.)
Phospholipids are formed when conditions
thought to exist on the earth before the appearance of oxygen are
reproduced in a lab. Shaking forms phospholipids into balls. Thus, the
first cell membranes were probably formed from phospholipids, a type
of fat. Different strands of DNA, RNA, etc, were probably trapped
inside many of these balls as they formed. The idea I'm presenting is
that some of these were viable, thus living cells were formed. Remember,
God had said, "Let the earth bring forth..." Of course, God may have
used a totally different method to produce the first living cells.
Additional information and references:
Biology Links from Harvard University Dept of Molecular & Cellular
Biology. Talk origins lists many topics dealing with biological
evolution from abiogenesis to trilobites and beyond.
Here are some examples of different species developing from
one "kind." More examples of speciation.
See Stromatolites, the oldest fossils found so far. Here you
can see all kinds of fossils.
Pattle P. T. Pun who has a Ph.D in biology from State University in
Buffalo, New York covers supposed transitional links to humans and
other species in depth in his book "Evolution Nature & Scripture In
Conflict?" Pages 80-117. He also discusses the fossil record,
empirical evidence, progressive creation, the genesis days, "min" or
kind, plus the appearance of humans on pages 80-117, 201-205, 228,
252-256, 260-268, On the above pages he also discusses the
overlapping day-age view, and a modified intermittent day view..
As Christians, we need not fear real scientific evidence. Of course,
we shouldn't blindly accept any and all theories. If we can figure
out how God did something, that does not make it any less miraculous.
God has often intervened directly in human history. I think he foresaw
and planned Noah's flood billions of years before it happened. Our God
truely is all wise and all knowing. His intelligence is unmeasurable.
In a game of chess, Satan wouldn't stand a chance against God. I think
Satan thought he could overthrow God because God hadn't shown him all
of his knowledge or power. We can ascribe the universe and ourselves to
blind chance and live for ourselves and the Devil, or we can give the
glory and our obedience to God, our creator. God always lets us chose.
Will you chose to obey and trust him? Or will you chose to reject him?
Great helpful books: Gleason Archer's, "Encyclopedia of Bible
Difficulties." "The Independent Birth of Organisms" by Dr. Senapathy.
Dr. Senapathy's nonreligious book is published by Genome Press
583 D'Onofrio Drive Suite 3 Madison, WI 53719. e-mail: Sena@Genome.com
"Creation and Time" by Dr. Hugh Ross an Christian astronomer. You can
contact Reasons To Believe at P.O. Box 5978 Pasadena CA 91117. Phone #
818-335-1480. Their home page on the Internet is
Remember, "planted" and "made" can also be translated "had planted,"
and "had made." Genesis 2:8-9. Also, humans are created in the moral and
spiritual image of God. God doesn't have a physical body, although He can
appear in a humanoid form. Genesis 1:26-27. John 4:24. Luke 24:39.
Colossians 1:15. Exekiel 1:26-2:1.
I believe God has brought forth intelligent life forms on many planets
in our universe and galaxy. I believe some of these intelligent life forms
are more advanced and some are less
advanced than we are. I would not be at all surprised to some day find out
that He used evolution and His creativity to bring about all the life forms
on these planets. I also believe physical beings more advanced than us have
learned how to genetically extent their lives, as well as increase their
intelligence, strength, and immune systems.